Shift in ancient diet may explain modern orthodontic problems

first_imgAnalysis of sexual dimorphism. PCA of form (rescaled Procrustes variables). Image (c) PNAS, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1113050108 (see the paper for more details) Citation: Shift in ancient diet may explain modern orthodontic problems (2011, November 22) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-11-shift-ancient-diet-modern-orthodontic.html It all comes down, von Cramon-Taubadel says, to the fact that farmed food requires less work in chewing, resulting in less jaw muscle, which over time means shorter jaws. But alas, neither the size nor number of teeth has changed over the same period of time resulting in overcrowding.von Cramon-Taubadel came to this conclusion after studying skull and associated jaw specimens from eleven different early human populations stored in museums around the world. Of those eleven, five were representative of primarily hunter-gatherer type people’s, while the other six groups primarily relied on food obtained from farming. In her studies, she found that hunter-gatherer groups on the whole tended to have longer jawbones than did those that had resorted to depending on farmed foods. The thinking is, she says, that longer jawbones work better in dealing with hard to chew food, such as meat and some wild vegetation.The shift from hunting-gathering to farming happened in many areas of the world some 10,000 years ago, and is widely accepted to be one of the main stepping stones to civilization. Many scientists over the years have theorized that the move to farming likely led to shorter jaws, but this is apparently the first time anyone’s thought to actually test the theory.Realizing that the shorter jaws she’d found in her study of museum specimens could have come about for other reasons, von Cramon-Taubadel next began looking for other ways the specimens could have been correlated, i.e. geography, genetics or weather patterns and could find none. The only thing she could find in common among the groups was the way they obtained their food. Thus, she concludes that it seems reasonable to deduce that or modern dental crowding is likely the result of our ancestors move to farming and the foods we have relied on since then. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: Global human mandibular variation reflects differences in agricultural and hunter-gatherer subsistence strategies, PNAS, Published online before print November 21, 2011, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1113050108AbstractVariation in the masticatory behavior of hunter-gatherer and agricultural populations is hypothesized to be one of the major forces affecting the form of the human mandible. However, this has yet to be analyzed at a global level. Here, the relationship between global mandibular shape variation and subsistence economy is tested, while controlling for the potentially confounding effects of shared population history, geography, and climate. The results demonstrate that the mandible, in contrast to the cranium, significantly reflects subsistence strategy rather than neutral genetic patterns, with hunter-gatherers having consistently longer and narrower mandibles than agriculturalists. These results support notions that a decrease in masticatory stress among agriculturalists causes the mandible to grow and develop differently. This developmental argument also explains why there is often a mismatch between the size of the lower face and the dentition, which, in turn, leads to increased prevalence of dental crowding and malocclusions in modern postindustrial populations. Therefore, these results have important implications for our understanding of human masticatory adaptation. Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciencescenter_img Explore further Most modern European males descend from farmers who migrated from the Near East © 2011 PhysOrg.com (PhysOrg.com) — Many a parent has lamented the crowding of their children’s teeth indicating impending orthodontia bills, but few no doubt have wondered quite as deeply as Noreen von Cramon-Taubadel, an anthropologist from the U.K., on why this seems to be such a common malady for modern people. After some digging, as she explains in her paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, it might all be due to humans long ago moving from being primarily hunter-gatherers to farmers or more aptly, to societies that eat the crops that farmers produce.last_img read more

Researchers mass produce reprogrammed T cells that target cancer cells

first_img Tracking nanodiamond-tagged stem cells (Phys.org) —A team of researchers at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center has developed a method for mass producing T cells that have been reprogrammed using stem cell technology to target and destroy cancerous tumors. In their paper published in the journal Nature Biotechnology, the team describes how they collected isolated T cells, reprogrammed them into stem cells, added a gene marker, than reprogrammed them back into T cells that are able to target cells in cancerous tumors. Citation: Researchers mass produce reprogrammed T cells that target cancer cells (2013, August 12) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-08-mass-reprogrammed-cells-cancer.html Explore further More information: Generation of tumor-targeted human T lymphocytes from induced pluripotent stem cells for cancer therapy, Nature Biotechnology (2013) DOI: 10.1038/nbt.2678AbstractProgress in adoptive T-cell therapy for cancer and infectious diseases is hampered by the lack of readily available, antigen-specific, human T lymphocytes. Pluripotent stem cells could provide an unlimited source of T lymphocytes, but the therapeutic potential of human pluripotent stem cell–derived lymphoid cells generated to date remains uncertain. Here we combine induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)7 and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)8 technologies to generate human T cells targeted to CD19, an antigen expressed by malignant B cells, in tissue culture. These iPSC-derived, CAR-expressing T cells display a phenotype resembling that of innate ?? T cells. Similar to CAR-transduced, peripheral blood ?? T cells, the iPSC–derived T cells potently inhibit tumor growth in a xenograft model. This approach of generating therapeutic human T cells ‘in the dish’ may be useful for cancer immunotherapy and other medical applications. Differentiation of 1928z CAR–engineered T-iPSCs into CD19-specific functional T lymphocytes. (a) The study concept. Peripheral blood lymphocytes are reprogrammed to pluripotency by transduction with retroviruses encoding c-MYC, SOX2, KLF4 and OCT-4. The resulting T-iPSCs are genetically engineered to express a CAR and are then differentiated into T cells that express both the CAR and an endogenous TCR. Credit: Nature Biotechnology (2013) doi:10.1038/nbt.2678center_img Journal information: Nature Biotechnology © 2013 Phys.org This new effort builds on research conducted this past March where a team held clinical trials that showed that genetically modified T cells could be used to target and destroy tumors (that came about due to lymphoblastic leukemia). Though successful, that effort resulted in a difficult to employ therapy. In this second-stage, the researchers developed a technique that allowed for mass producing reprogrammed T cells, thereby making the therapy more easily applicable.To mass produce the cells, the researchers started by extracting T cells from a donor mouse. Those T cells were then modified to reprogram them into stem cells. Next, the researchers transferred gene information from a disabled retrovirus into the stem cells. The final step was reprogramming the stem cells back into T cells. Because they contained new gene information the newly minted T cells were capable of attacking cancer cells. Once created, the T cells were then nurtured into reproducing naturally—creating up to 1000 copies of themselves. Those cells were then injected back into the original donor mouse where they set to work destroying tumor cells.The researchers note that the reprogrammed T cells are not really T cells in a technical sense—they’re actually a new type of cell that closely resemble T cells, but have added capabilities. They add that their technique should also allow for the creation of different types of the T cell mimics allowing for targeting different types of cancer cells.As with all such research, more studies will need to be conducted to learn more about the cells the team is creating before they can be tested in human trials. The researchers are optimistic, however, suggesting that their technique for treating cancer could be in general use as early as 2020. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Astronomers discover a very hot Jupiter exoplanet orbiting a bright hot star

first_imgDiscovery light curve for KELT-18b based on 4162 observation from the KELT-North telescope. The data have been phase-folded on the preliminary value for the period, 2.8716482d. Credit: McLeod et al., 2017. More information: KELT-18b: Puffy Planet, Hot Host, Probably Perturbed, arXiv:1702.01657 [astro-ph.EP] arxiv.org/abs/1702.01657AbstractWe report the discovery of KELT-18b, a transiting hot Jupiter in a 2.87d orbit around the bright (V=10.1), hot, F4V star BD+60 1538 (TYC 3865-1173-1). We present follow-up photometry, spectroscopy, and adaptive optics imaging that allow a detailed characterization of the system. Our preferred model fits yield a host stellar temperature of 6670+/-120 K and a mass of 1.524+/-0.069 Msun, situating it as one of only a handful of known transiting planets with hosts that are as hot, massive, and bright. The planet has a mass of 1.18+/-0.11 Mjup, a radius of 1.57+/-0.04 Rjup, and a density of 0.377+/-0.040 g/cm^3, making it one of the most inflated planets known around a hot star. We argue that KELT-18b’s high temperature, low surface gravity, and hot, bright host make it an excellent candidate for observations aimed at atmospheric characterization. We also present evidence for a bound stellar companion at a projected separation of ~1100 AU, and speculate that it may have contributed to the strong misalignment we suspect between KELT-18’s spin axis and its planet’s orbital axis. The inferior conjunction time is 2457542.524998 +/-0.000416 (BJD_TDB) and the orbital period is 2.8717510 +/- 0.0000029 days. We encourage Rossiter-McLaughlin measurements in the near future to confirm the suspected spin-orbit misalignment of this system. Citation: Astronomers discover a very hot Jupiter exoplanet orbiting a bright, hot star (2017, February 8) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-02-astronomers-hot-jupiter-exoplanet-orbiting.html KELT consists of two telescopes, KELT-North located in Arizona and KELT-South at the SAAO observing station near Sutherland in South Africa. A team of researchers led by Kim McLeod of the Wellesley College in Wellesley, Massachusetts, used KELT-North to observe KELT-18 (also known as BD+60 1538 or TYC 3865-1173-1) as a candidate host star of a transiting planet.Light curves of KELT-18 obtained by KELT-North allowed the team to distinguish a transit signal. The planetary nature of this signal was later confirmed by follow-up photometric and spectroscopic observations utilizing a network of observatories around the world. Moreover, the researchers also derived the fundamental parameters of the newly found planetary system.”We report the discovery of KELT-18b, a transiting hot Jupiter in a 2.87d orbit around the bright (V= 10.1), hot, F4V star BD+60 1538 (TYC 3865-1173-1). We present follow-up photometry, spectroscopy, and adaptive optics imaging that allow a detailed characterization of the system,” the paper reads.KELT-18b was found to be about 18 percent more massive than Jupiter, though it has a radius of approximately 1.57 Jupiter radii. Therefore, the planet is larger than it should be when compared to typical gas giants. Thus, KELT-18b was classified as a highly inflated gaseous world. Such inflated planets are still a mystery for the scientific community as the cause of the inflation process is widely debated. It could be due to tidal heating, kinetic heating, enhanced atmospheric opacities or ohmic dissipation. With an orbital period of about 2.9 days, KELT-18b belongs to the hot Jupiter family of planets. The so-called hot Jupiters are gas giant planets, similar in characteristics to the solar system’s biggest planet, with orbital periods of less than 10 days. They have high surface temperatures as they orbit their host stars very closely. According to the paper, KELT-18b is one of the most inflated planets known orbiting a hot star. It also joins the group of very low density (about 0.38 g cm-3), highly inflated planets transiting hot hosts.”KELT-18b is one of least dense planets known among those with hot, bright hosts. It provides a check on the empirical relations for radius inflation in a part of parameter space that is still only sparsely sampled,” the researchers noted.The scientists also noted that the host star KELT-18 (1.52 solar masses and 1.98 solar radii) could have a stellar companion at a distance of about 1,100 AU, which may have contributed to the strong misalignment suspected between KELT-18’s spin axis and the planet’s orbital axis.”We encourage Rossiter-McLaughlin measurements in the near future to confirm the suspected spin-orbit misalignment of this system,” the team concluded. One of the most inflated giant planets discovered (Phys.org)—Using the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) astronomers have detected a new gas giant alien world. The newly discovered exoplanet, designated KELT-18b, turns out to be a highly inflated “hot Jupiter” orbiting a bright, hot star. The findings were presented in a paper published Feb. 6 on the arXiv pre-print server. © 2017 Phys.org Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Building Growth Mindset in the Classroom Assignments From Carol Dweck

first_imgGrowth mindsets aren’t just for students. It helps for teachers to have a growth mindset about their students’ mindsets, too. A teacher’s classroom approach shapes whether their students believe they are born with fixed academic skills or can grow them through practice and experience, according to Carol Dweck, the Stanford University researcher who pioneered the study of academic mindsets.  “Mindsets create a psychological world with very different meanings,” Dweck said in a keynote at the annual Association of Psychological Science conference this weekend. “Those with a fixed mindset tend to think that if you have to work hard at something, you’re not good at it. … When you have a growth mindset, you’re not fearful about your abilities all the time; setbacks promote challenge-seeking and greater learning.”center_img For example, she pointed to “one high school chemistry teacher who told the class, ‘Within a week, I know who will get an ‘A’ and who will get a ‘C.’ Further, I will know the difference between a real ‘A’ and a fake ‘A’—a fake ‘A’ is one you had to work for.” Read the whole story: Education Weeklast_img read more

Size doesnt matter

first_imgArt Alive Gallery opens the season with a collection of small format works by India’s leading artists. This show is the second in the series of Think Small, following the success of its first show, four years back. The second edition brings back a show which is all about viewing the power of ‘small’. The show brings together 30 artists to create works in a size not exceeding 24’’ x 24’. These artists have taken up the challenge, been creative and bold in being able to render the intimate details in the small format.  Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Participating artists: S H Raza, Sakti Burman, Anjolie Ela Menon, Manu Parekh, Thota Vaikuntam, Yusuf Arakkal, Rini Dhumal, Akkitham Narayanan, Senaka Senanayake, Maite Delteil, Paresh Maity, Sujata Bajaj, Jayasri Burman, Shobha Broota, Sanjay Bhattarcharya, S. Harsha Vardhana, Nayanaa Kanodia, Shipra Bhattacharya, Samir Mondal, George Martin PJ, Kishor Shinde, Chandra Bhattacharjee, Maya Burman, Binoy Varghese, Apurva Desai, Farhad Hussain, Sharmi Chowdhury, Ranjeeta Kant, Meghansh Thapa and Suraj Kumar Kashi. WHEN: 3 August – 10 September, 11 am to 7 pmWHERE: Art Alive Gallery, S-221, Panchsheel Parklast_img read more

Written on the body

first_imgTucked away in the capital’s resplendent Lutyens zone, National Museum needed an iconic showstopper that would transform its image from a mere custodian and exhibitor of artefacts to a robust cultural centre and a happening place for the contemporary audience.The ongoing eleven-week exhibition, The Body in Indian Art, has done it to a great extent, firmly establishing the museum as an inclusive institution pulsating with footfalls of the elite and the commoners alike.  Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Curated by Naman Ahuja, who teaches art and architecture at Jawaharlal Nehru University, the eight-gallery exhibition is an exhaustive study of the body’s myriad representations in Indian art, covering a period of 4,000 years across regions, religions and cultures.‘The exhibition is part of a wider project to rejuvenate the museum and create new audiences for its extraordinary collections. We are now confident to raise the bar,’ said National Museum Director General Venu V. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixExplaining, he said the museum held two spectacular exhibitions in recent years – Jewels of the Nizams and The Enduring Image: Treasures from the British Museum, an Indo-British collaboration marking the 50th anniversary of Indian independence.’In both cases, we gave only the space and the objects were brought from outside. But in the case of The Body in Indian Art, the museum has opened its magnificent reserve collection, becoming the largest lender of artefacts, some of which were never shown earlier. We were involved in the exhibition from conception to completion,’ he said, adding, ‘It is an internal project.’  The exhibition has triggered a substantial increase in the number of visitors to the museum. During the period 14 March to 20 April, as many as 22,598 people visited the museum for the exhibition. Of this number, 11,516 were Indians, 4,764 foreigners and 6,318 students. ‘The exhibition has surely played an important role in the increased footfalls, considering the fact that March is considered a lean month for the museum,’ he observed.last_img read more

Poetry respite to the soul

first_imgPoetry is when an emotion has found its thought and the thought has found words, says Robert Frost Butterfly & The Bee in association with Poets Corner Presents A Poetry Gala celebrating the spirit of serenity and solitude. Four books are being launched at the event ‘Confessions of a heart’, ‘Kindle the spirit’, ‘Storm for serenity’, ‘the Bliss of Solitude’. The authors putting forth their work are Kamlesh Acharya, Vandana Arora and Farah Siddiqui. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’ A poet’s work is to name the unnameable, to point at frauds, to take sides, start arguments, shape the world, and stop it going to sleep. And that’s exactly what these poets are looking forward to do. When: 25th May, Sunday read more

Culture and tourism integrated

first_imgShowcasing a range of artefacts and curios across mediums and over the past two millennia, National Museum (NM) turned a new chapter on Friday, by hosting an exhibition of a private donor for the first time in its 65-year history.Close to 100 select sculptures, besides textiles, paintings, manuscripts, coins and textiles which octogenarian C L Bharany had lent to the museum in 1976 are now on display for more than a month at a specially designed gallery, as Union Minister of State for Culture and Tourism Shripad Naik inaugurated A Passionate Eye being co-curated by three experts. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’‘The time has come to integrate culture with tourism. The country will hugely benefit from such a synergy,’ the minister said before formally opening the 34-day show, featuring 99 objects on 6,000-sq-ft carpeted space. He noted that A Passionate Eye, also titled Paarkhi Nazar in Hindi, highlighted the role of private collectors in lending focus to cultural heritage. ‘Museums help us engage with our past; they are a fascinating experience,’ he added. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixChotte Lal Bharany, now 87, is among the most significant collectors of Indian art – a passion the icon took cue from his late father RK Bharany in the 20th century. Delhi-based Bharany, with roots in Amritsar where they were carpet manufacturers, went on to gain name with his striking range and quality of the works he assembled. Bharany described museums as ‘cultural temples’ of the country, and said traditional Indian art banked its aesthetics on mythology. ‘Art is a more of a feeling than anything,’ he noted. ‘Aspects like antiquity, historicity and ethnicity come only later.’ NM Director-General Venu V said A Passionate Eye has enabled NM now to venture into a new territory. ‘We are planning similar exhibitions that will allow visitors to show more than what is on permanent display. This is the first special exhibition NM is holding to explore this subject,’ he added.The exhibition, which British art historian Giles Tillotson has co-curated with Pramod Kumar KG and Mrinalini Venkateswaran of Eka Archiving Services, is designed by Siddhartha Chatterjee of Seechange. Some items have been lent by the Bharany family specifically for A Passionate Eye. Ravindra Singh, Secretary, Culture, stressed the need for collaboration between public museums. ‘It is a good trend that museums are no fossilised places; instead one brims with people,’ he said.Through its design, the exhibition that is slated to conclude on 14 August seeks to reflect this variety. Objects are grouped sometimes by material such as textile and sometimes by subject matter or themes such as asceticism – irrespective of provenance and date – to highlight the varied and layered links that inspire collecting.last_img read more

21yearold found dead at inlaws residence

first_imgKolkata: Mystery shrouds the death of a 21-year-old woman, whose body was found at her in-laws’ residence in Manicktala area on Thursday night.According to police, the victim consumed poison. Police are yet to ascertain if she had committed suicide or there was any foul play behind the incident. The body was found inside her room. Police reached the spot after being informed by locals on Thursday night.On the basis of the complaint lodged by the family members of the victim, police have arrested the husband. The relatives of the deceased lodged a complaint with the local police station against her in-laws as well. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedThe family members of the victim told the police that she was murdered after they failed to give dowry as demanded. She had been subjected to both mental and physical torture at her in-laws’ house, alleged her family members.Police said the victim, Phool Kumari Marik (21) got married to Deepak Marik around three years ago. A resident of Muraripukur area, Deepak used to torture her since marriage as her family members failed to give the amount of money as they had Also Read – Naihati: 10 councillors return to TMC from BJPdemanded as dowry.Deepak works at a vest manufacturing factory. During marriage, he received Rs 1 lakh as dowry.Later the husband started giving pressure on the woman to get money from her family.The victim was also threatened of dire consequences by her husbandand in-laws.The family members of the victim also alleged that Deepak is involved in an extra-marital relationship. The victim had been subjected to physical torture as she protested against the illicit relationship of her husband.The family members of the victim received a phone call from her in-laws’ house saying the woman had consumed poison. When her father and other family members rushed to her in-laws’ house, they found her dead. Police later recovered the body and sent it for post -mortem. Police have started a detailed probe in this regard and are interrogating the husband.last_img read more

Bulk of black money within India Jaitley

first_imgIn an article ‘The NDA government’s campaign against black money’ posted on his Facebook page on Sunday, Jaitley said the government was at an advanced stage in considering the requirement of furnishing PAN (permanent account number) card details for cash transactions beyond a limit.He said the NDA government’s strategy was to put more money in the pockets of middle and low income groups by raising exemption limits and incentivising savings which will encourage consumption and which, in turn, will increase volumes of indirect taxation. Also Read – Punjab on alert after release of excess water from Bhakra damThe Bharatiya Janata Party leader said opening a large number of payment gateways, internet banking, payment banks and the emerging reality of e-commerce will prompt the use of banking transactions and plastic money significantly.“The bulk of black money is still within India. We thus need a change in national attitude where plastic currency becomes the norm and cash an exception. Being seized of this problem, the government has been working with various authorities to incentivise this change,” Jaitley said. Also Read – Union Min doubts ‘vote count’ in Bareilly, seeks probeHe said those who had declared their undisclosed assets abroad in the compliance window offered by the government “can now sleep well” and those who have failed to file such a declaration will be subjected to penal provisions.“They will be liable to pay 30 percent tax and a penalty of 90 percent, thus leading to confiscation of the assets plus more. This law will create a deterrent in future against the flight of capital from India,” he said. He said the government has taken a series of steps for international cooperation in the matters of tax evasion. Referring to Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s initiative at the G-20 meeting for international cooperation in tackling unlawful assets held by the residents of one country in foreign soil, Jaitley said it was intended to lift the veil of secrecy in banking transactions and in real time inform domestic taxation authorities about transactions of their citizens internationally. He said the government has signed an understanding with the US under FATCA (Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act) wherein the US and India would disclose to each other any real time transaction in accounts with financial institutions by its citizens in foreign territories. He said Switzerland had agreed to provide India proof relating to several HSBC accounts where India can give some evidence over and above the stolen data which was delivered to New Delhi through France. “It is expected that over the next two years this international cooperation will be worked out. Thus those with illegal assets abroad, who have failed to make declarations, would now stand the risk of information relating to them eventually reaching the Indian taxation authorities,” Jaitley said.last_img read more